HalfMoon Education Inc. Knowledge Gets You There

Presenter: Wendy Lathrop, PLS, CFM

Recording Date:

Recording Location: Bethlehem, PA

Type: CD/Manual Package

Product Code: 15005

Product Number: 18 PABNDESM 2 16 CDMN CP

State-Specific Continuing Education Info:


This audio recording is approximately 6.5 hours in length and is available for $289 (including shipping). Please refer to specific state licensing rules or certification requirements to determine if this learning method is eligible for continuing education credit.

How to Use

HalfMoon will mail you these materials via USPS. Please allow 5 weeks from the date of purchase to receive your product. If the live seminar is in the future, please allow 5 weeks from the date of the live seminar.

The USB+PDF package includes either an Mp3 audio recording of a live seminar, or video recording of a live webinar on a USB thumb drive along with a PDF file of the manual that was distributed at the seminar/webinar. The manual contains written materials prepared by the seminar speaker(s).

The webinar video recording requires completion of a follow-up quiz with 80% or greater accuracy (multiple attempts allowed) in order to download a certificate of completion for the program. The acceptance of self-administered continuing education activities varies widely between states and professions. Before undertaking any self-study effort, you should review the rules of your licensing/certifying entity.
The Mp3 audio recording contains embedded number codes, which you are required to document and return to HalfMoon if you wish to obtain a certificate of completion for the program. The acceptance of self-administered continuing education activities varies widely between states and professions. Before undertaking any self-study effort, you should review the rules of your licensing/certifying entity.

HalfMoon Education guarantees its products. The self-study products are recorded from a live seminar and there are circumstances where an audio recording is not available. HalfMoon will contact you and issue a full refund if the product you ordered is not available. If you are not happy with a product you receive, you can return the product for a full refund. However, refunds will not be issued if completion certificates are requested.


Registration:                        8:00 - 8:30 am

Morning Session:                8:30 - 11:45 am

Lunch (On your own):         11:45 am - 12:45 pm

Afternoon Session:             12:45 - 4:40 pm

Locating Land Boundaries on Paper (And on the Ground)

   What a deed tells us about real property interests and their locations – or doesn’t
   Common kinds of land descriptions in Pennsylvania:
      • Metes and bounds
      • Reference to a subdivision
      • Reference to a tax parcel
      • “Strip” descriptions
      • 3-D descriptions (condominiums, split estates)
      • Blanket easements
   Reading a description to find evidence of location
   The work involved in writing a description
   Tying the paper deed to the ground: What is evidence of a boundary?
   Why paper and ground may not match
   When the paper and the ground don’t match: The hierarchy of evidence in descriptions
   Summary: elements of a good description

Easements: Understanding Possessive Rights in Lands of Others

   Distinctions between ownership and possession
   Easements distinguished from other possessory rights
   Types of easements and distinctions between them: appurtenant, in gross, affirmative, negative, and others
   Methods of easement creation
   Clues in documents to determine if interests are fee or easement
   The effect of the Statute of Frauds on possessory rights
   Methods of easement termination
   What happens after termination?

Defining Trespass and Adverse Possession

   Defining trespass
   Distinctions between trespass, adverse possession, and prescriptive rights
   Maintaining adverse claims
      • Statute of limitations
      • Elements of a claim
      • “Lost grant” claims
      • Quiet title actions

Understanding Riparian and Water Rights

   The Public Trust Doctrine and riparian rights
   Locating land boundaries near the water line
   Determining access rights to surface waters
   Determining rights to groundwater
   Water-related regulations affecting land use and land ownership in Pennsylvania

Disputes: Boundaries, Shared Spaces, and Split Estates

   An overview of methods to resolve disputes
   Acquiescence, laches, estoppel, and equity
   Less litigious approaches to settling land interest disputes
      • Practical location and boundary line agreements
      • Boundary line commissions
   Examples of real-life disputes: causes and outcomes


Wendy Lathrop, PLS, CFM

President and Owner of Cadastral Consulting, LLC

Ms. Lathrop is licensed as a professional land surveyor in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland, and as a professional planner in New Jersey. She holds a master’s degree in Environmental Policy, and has been involved in surveying since 1974 in projects ranging from construction to boundary to environmental land use disputes. Ms. Lathrop is also a certified floodplain manager through the Association of State Flood Plain Managers (ASFPM). A former adjunct instructor at Mercer County College in New Jersey, she has also taught as part of the team for the licensing exam review course at Drexel University in Pennsylvania. Ms. Lathrop has been teaching seminars for surveyors since 1986 and has been writing articles for surveyors since 1983. She is a contributing editor for The American Surveyor magazine, and she has four articles included in the American Bar Association’s text, Land Surveys: A Guide for Lawyers and Other Professionals. She and Stephen V. Estopinal, PLS, PE co–authored a book entitled Professional Surveyors and Real Property Descriptions: Composition, Construction, and Comprehension, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. in 2011. She is also on the faculty of GeoLearn, a web-based educational provider. Ms. Lathrop is a past president of the New Jersey Society of Professional Land Surveyors and of the National Society of Professional Surveyors, and she has served on the Board of Directors for the American Association for Geodetic Surveying.